St. Michael's Jr Objectives

Rotation-Specific Objectives for Neurosurgical Residents on Neurosurgical Services: Junior Rotation at St. Michael's Hospital

During their residency training, neurosurgery residents will perform at least 36 months (42 months for those beginning after June 30, 2010) on clinical neurosurgical services within the teaching hospitals of the University of Toronto. These hospitals include: The Hospital for Sick Children, The Toronto Western Hospital, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, and St Michael's Hospital. While there are many similarities between the neurosurgical services at each of these hospitals, there are understandably areas of expertise, which differ at each hospital. These are accounted in the following descriptions of rotation-specific objectives for neurosurgical residents on neurosurgical services:

St Michael's Hospital
The Neurosurgery service at the St Michael's Hospital (SMH) is a busy inner urban practice with an active Level 1 Adult Trauma program. This service distinguishes itself by providing neurosurgical care to patients with complex skull base lesions including pituitary tumours, complex neurovascular care including endovascular care performed by neurosurgeons, and combined neurosurgery and orthopedic spinal care for patients with spinal disease. The patients served by SMH often come from an under-privileged background and residents learn to identify and activate appropriate community resources to help these individuals.

Residents typically rotate as junior (PGY1-2) and then as senior (PGY5-6) residents at SMH for periods up to 6 months. Throughout their rotations at SMH, residents learn a wide variety of procedures to care for patients with various neurosurgical conditions.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the completion of their rotations at SMH, neurosurgery residents at the junior levels will function effectively as a:

MEDICAL EXPERT/CLINICAL DECISION MAKER

General Requirements

  • Admit patients, record their medical history and physical examination in clinic and ward environments.
  • Assist in the operating room or operate as the principal surgeon under supervision of the attending surgeon or chief clinical fellow.
  • Consult on patients on medical wards, ICUs, outpatient clinics, and emergency department.
  • Make rounds in the various hospital units as assigned, order appropriate medications, tests and other forms of therapy required for continued care, plan discharge with nurse clinicians and charge nurse and write a daily progress note in the chart where appropriate.
  • Attend clinic at least one half day per week.

Specific Requirements

At the completion of their neurosurgical rotations at SMH, the junior level resident will have demonstrated the following:

KNOWLEDGE

  • An understanding of the main acquired adult neurosurgical disorders requiring neurosurgical attention including infectious diseases, head and spinal cord injury, brain tumours, stroke, vascular malformations, and degenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord.
  • A basic knowledge of the anatomy of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spine and skull, and a working basic knowledge of the other disciplines including physiology, pathology, endocrinology, and neuropsychology.
  • Familiarity with and understanding of diagnostic imaging studies used to investigate the patient with a neurosurgical disorders including EEG, EMG, CT, MRI, MEG, and ultrasound.
  • An understanding of the spectrum of neurosurgical procedures that are available for the treatment of the patient with neurosurgical disease.

CLINICAL SKILLS

  • The ability to obtain a detailed history and perform a neurological examination in the patient in order to provide a differential diagnosis and localization of diseases affecting the central nervous system.
  • The development of skills in interpreting appropriate general diagnostic tests (hematology, x-ray, chemistry, etc.) for the satisfactory management of patients.
  • The provision of ongoing, high quality, post-operative neurological assessment and care, including neuro-intensive care, to the neurosurgical patient.
  • The ability to interpret neuroradiological examinations of patients with routine neurosurgical disorders.

TECHNICAL SKILLS


At the completion of their neurosurgical rotation, junior neurosurgery residents at SMH will have demonstrated a basic understanding of neurosurgical anatomy, and the technical ability to satisfactorily and safely perform the following procedures:


  • Burr holes for drainage of subdural hematomas and empyemas
  • Ventriculostomy
  • Insertion of ICP monitor
  • Craniotomy for trauma, tumour, stroke, and infection (including posterior fossa craniotomy)
  • Application of Halo ring and the use of cervical spinal traction
  • Cervical dissection for carotid endarterectomy and anterior cervical fusion.
  • Posterior cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal exposures for trauma and degenerative diseases.
  • Lumbar puncture
  • Exposure of median and ulnar nerves for neuropathy
  • Nerve and muscle biopsies

Under the supervision of the staff neurosurgeon, the senior resident or clinical fellow, the neurosurgical resident at the junior level at SMH will assist at various levels in the completion of the following procedures:


  • Supratentorial craniotomy for traumatic head injury and removal of extradural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and intracerebral hematoma
  • Supratentorial craniotomy for tumor removal, including some intradural surgery
  • Craniotomy for aneurysm repair or AVM excision
  • Exposure of cervical and lumbar discs
  • Placement of VP shunts

COMMUNICATOR:

General Requirements

At the completion of their rotations in neurosurgery, the junior resident in neurosurgery at SMH will:


  • Establish therapeutic relationships with the patients and their parents
  • Obtain and synthesize relevant history from patients/families/communities
  • Listen effectively to advice and suggestions from faculty and senior residents
  • Discuss appropriate information with patients/families and the health care team

Specific Requirements

At the end of their junior resident rotation at SMH, residents will be able to:


  • Document appropriate histories, physical examinations, and progress notes.
  • Establish communication with the patient and family that supports a trusting and open relationship.
  • Provide information to the patient and family that supports the patient's participation in decision-making.
  • Respond appropriately to patients, families, and colleagues, who express anger, hostility, or a complaint.
  • Share information with other healthcare providers that supports teamwork and effective care planning and provision in an expeditious manner.
  • Be sensitive to the needs of patients and their families as they are affected by age, gender, cultural and ethnic perspectives.
  • Be able to communicate in a clear, concise and collegial manner with referring physicians.
  • Be able to present data to a group of peers or allied health personnel in a clear and understandable way at weekly neurosurgery and neuroscience conferences.
  • Learn the avenues of communication with institutional managers and administrators to be able to clearly express the needs of his/her service.
  • Prepare written documentation regarding patient consultations in a timely and accurate fashion.

COLLABORATOR:

General Requirements

During their rotations at SMH, neurosurgery residents at a junior level of training will learn to:


  • Consult effectively with other physicians and health care professionals.
  • Contribute effectively to other interdisciplinary team activities.

Specific Requirements

During their adult neurosurgery rotations at SMH, junior residents will:


  • Learn to communicate with other physicians and health care professionals to contribute effectively to interdisciplinary team activities to improve patient care in the management of surgical disorders that benefit from such approaches.
  • Be able to collaborate with allied health care personnel in developing public education tools.
  • Be able to work with healthcare governance at all levels.
  • Contribute administrative skills to the physician team, including direction.
  • Be able to delegate responsibilities where and when appropriate.
  • Listen to concerns expressed by others providing care and assist in resolving these concerns if appropriate.

MANAGER:

General Requirements

During their neurosurgical rotations, junior residents at SMH will:


  • Utilize resources effectively to balance patient care, learning needs, and outside activities.
  • Allocate finite health care resources wisely.
  • Work effectively and efficiently at SMH.
  • Utilize information technology (eg. searching medical databases) to optimize patient care, life-long learning and other activities.

Specific Requirements

During their neurosurgical rotations, junior residents at SMH will:


  • Learn time management for clinical activity, learning needs and family and recreational activities.
  • Learn to function efficiently and effectively at SMH so as to optimize the application of existing resources.
  • Learn to interact with the larger community to preserve and secure adequate resources for the provision of excellent care.
  • Utilize current information technology for optimal patient care and for personal life-long learning.
  • Learn the approach and the clinical decision making for neurosurgical patients in the emergency room setting .
  • Learn to triage patients being able to identify neurosurgical emergencies that require prompt and immediate management including evaluating appropriate diagnostic and imaging modalities and plan for operative treatment.
  • Learn the complete care of a group of patients on the service of one or more members of the neurosurgical staff (clinical teaching unit), under the direction of the senior resident and/or staff member(s).
  • Gain exposure to office neurosurgery. Learn the out-patient management of neurosurgical problems by attending clinic at least one-half day per week.

HEALTH ADVOCATE:

General Requirements

During their neurosurgical rotations at SMH, junior residents will:


  • Identify the important determinants of health affecting patients.
  • Contribute effectively to improved health of patients and communities.
  • Recognize and respond to those issues where advocacy is appropriate.

Specific Requirements

During their neurosurgical rotations at SMH, junior residents will:


  • Identify the important determinants of health that affect their patients.
  • Contribute effectively to injury prevention, health maintenance and health enhancement programs in the community.
  • Be effective advocates of practices that enhance health and well-being.
  • Identify and initiate community resources for under-privileged individuals.

SCHOLAR:

General Requirements

During their neurosurgery rotations at SMH, junior residents will:


  • Develop, implement and monitor a personal continuing education strategy.
  • Critically appraise sources of medical information.
  • Facilitate learning of patients, house staff/students and other health professionals.

Specific Requirements

During their neurosurgery rotations at SMH, junior residents will:


  • Acquire current techniques to appraise sources of medical information and develop, implement and monitor a personal education strategy so as to become life-long learners.
  • Acquire a sufficient awareness of the scientific method, including the principles of epidemiology, in order to critically analyse the literature for continuing medical education and investigation.
  • Learn to facilitate the learning of patients, medical colleagues, both junior and senior, and other health care professionals.
  • Make presentations at various times at weekly Neurosurgery and Neuroscience rounds.
  • Prepare cases for discussion at monthly morbidity and mortality founds.
  • Review topics for discussion at didactic teaching rounds.
  • Undertake one or more clinical research projects leading to a presentation and/or publication as supervised by the faculty.

PROFESSIONAL:

General Requirements

During their adult neurosurgery rotations, junior residents at SMH will:


  • Deliver highest quality care with integrity, honesty and compassion.
  • Exhibit appropriate personal and interpersonal professional behaviors.
  • Practice medicine ethically consistent with obligations of a physician.

Specific Requirements

During their neurosurgery resident rotations, junior residents at SMH will:


  • Have a thorough appreciation of the necessity for methods of quality assurance in the delivery of health care.
  • Learn to deliver the highest quality care with integrity, honesty and compassion, and understand the importance of bio-ethical issues in the delivery of health care.
  • Have the deportment of a professional including the demonstration of a sincere, caring attitude in dealing with patients.
  • Fulfill medical, legal, and professional obligations of the specialist.
  • Meet deadlines, be punctual, monitor patients, and provide follow-up.
  • Understand the principles of ethics and apply these in clinical situations.
  • Demonstrate self-assessment, seek and accept advice when necessary.